Korean War Project

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Korean DMZ Unit Messages







Korean DMZ 1960 to 1969


1810 Messages

Page 28

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Entry: 60394
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
TRYING TO FIND (21-T-CAR) OR 14TH ADMINSTRATION CO. FRIENDS

DENNIS CONLOGUE wrote on March 19, 2007


City and State: BURNHAM ME

Unit: 14TH ADMINISTRATION CO.

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: was with 21st transporation co.(21-t-car) when i was first in country than was sent up north to 14th adminstration company because i had a slight attitude problem.like to hear from anyone from either co. who was there at the time.

Keywords: friends


Entry: 60393
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
TRYING TO FIND

DENNIS CONLOGUE wrote on March 19, 2007


City and State: BURNHAM ME

Unit: 14TH ADMINISTRATION CO

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: i was the driver for the exec/officer lt michael e pue. company commander was capt.kendell. 1961--1962 like to hear from anyone who was in the company at that time.

Keywords: friends


Entry: 60389
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
1ST BN 23RD INF KOREA 1968

MARVIN WOODBURY wrote on March 18, 2007


City and State: FREEPORT ME

Unit: NONE

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: iam working on a va claim for a maynard libby he would have been sgt libby to you guys in his 3rd platoon iam looking for info on a james e o'malley who was killed on patrol in the dmz on 13 dec 1968 if anyone has info please contact me as soon as possible we are running out of time with the va a while back someone called me from another va about this claim and the message got lost due to a power outage please contact me again or anyone else who has info i know there are some of you guys still out there lets help this veteran please thanks marvin woodbury vfw service officer maine.

Keywords:


Entry: 60358
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
LOOKING FOR FRIENDS OF CORPRORAL DONALD R. ZIOLKOWSKI

KEVIN ZOLKOWSKI wrote on March 15, 2007


City and State: DEARBORN HEIGHTS MI

Unit:

Service or Relationship: FAMILY MEMBER

Comments: State side 5th army

Keywords: shipped over to inchon nic name zeek, later orders to pork chop hill








Entry: 60348
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
KOREA 1962-63

WILBUR HESTER wrote on March 14, 2007


City and State: DANVILLE AR

Unit: 7TH INF. DIV.

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: I was stationed at Camp Casey Korea in 1962-63, I was a ground surveillance Radar operator,I was evacuated back to Brooke Army Hospital in January 1963.
I would like to hear from anyone there at that time.


Keywords: Camp Casey


Entry: 60283
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
CAMP KAISER 1960-1961

MILTON HARRIS wrote on March 10, 2007


City and State: SALEM MO

Unit: HQ-HQCO 1STBG 31INF 7THDIVAPO 7

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: colddddddddddddd

Keywords: motor pool cold ashell winter the whole camp froze had to put oil cans on top of stove to keep runnig


Entry: 60281
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
LOOKING FOR BUDDIES HQ7HQCO1STBG 31INF17TH

MILTON HARRIS wrote on March 10, 2007


City and State: SALEM MO

Unit: HQ7HQCO1STBG 31INF17TH

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments:

Keywords: camp kaiser korea 1960-61


Entry: 60254
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
CO C, 1/17TH CAMP KAISER 1967-1968

RAY SCHWARZ wrote on March 7, 2007


City and State: PETALUMA CA

Unit: CO C, 1/17TH MECH, 7TH INF. DIV

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: Have been looking buddies from the 1/17th durring 1967-1968. Where are you guys?

Keywords: Camp Kaiser, 1.17th


Entry: 60226
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
GERHARD LABAY(FROM GERMANY)

ANN LABAY wrote on March 6, 2007


City and State: EDMOND OK

Unit: 72D ARMOR

Service or Relationship: FAMILY MEMBER

Comments: My name is Ann Labay and I am trying to put something together for my husband Gerhard Labay. I was wondering if there was anyone that served with him. He was there in 1969 to 1970.Gerhard was a 11E20 Armor crewman. Thank you a lot.Ann Labay

Keywords: CAMP ROSE 72D ARMOR...1969-1970


Entry: 60189
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
38TH AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY

WILLIAM KENNEY wrote on March 2, 2007


City and State: ROSLINDALE MA

Unit: 2/71 (HAWK) 38 ARTY (ADA)

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: I am trying to build a history of the 38th Air Defense Artillery. I would like to hear from the people who have served with our units over the years. I am interested in hearing the memories of our former unit members so we can build a history of who we were and what we did. I am trying to locate pictures of the units, camps and TAC sites. After the seizure of the U S S Pubelo, we sprayed our camps with agent orange. I am trying to assist our members with their V A claims.

Keywords: 1/2 ADA 7/2 ADA 7/5 ADA 1/44 ADA 2/44 ADA 4/44 ADA 6/44 ADA 2/71 ADA


Entry: 60179
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
49TH MEDICAL EVACUATION CO.

NICK FASANO wrote on March 1, 2007


City and State: OH

Unit: ASSIGNED TO 55TH AVIATION AT K-16

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: We played volly ball every day at noon.
What happened to miller from texas.A wheel blew apart and took the top of his head off.


Keywords: Some knew Me as fuzzy.


Entry: 60177
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
CP KAISER, CP CASEY, CP ST BARBARA, CP STANLEY

BRUCE RICHARDS wrote on March 1, 2007


City and State:

Unit:

Service or Relationship: OTHER

Comments: I had several tours to Korea during my years in the Army, and have web pages for some. A couple of these were closed in the 70s, with 2 still open for now. We are reducing of troop level there, and shifting the remaining forces farther south. I would like to get some Common area pictures of the ones still open to add to the web pages, and any other pictures of the camps that you guys may want to add to it.

Canp Kaiser: Closed in 71
http://www.qsl.net/wd4ngb/ckaiser.htm

Camp St Barbara: Closed in 75
http://www.qsl.net/wd4ngb/stbarbara.htm

Camp Casey
http://www.qsl.net/wd4ngb/ccasey.htm

Camp Stanley
http://www.qsl.net/wd4ngb/campstanley.htm

I do not think this server makes clickable links in the text, so use copy/paste into your browser.

Bruce


Keywords: Cp Kaiser, Cp Casey, Cp St Barbara, Cp Stanley


Entry: 60148
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
DOYLE WHISENHUNT

SHERI SHOLER wrote on February 27, 2007


City and State:

Unit:

Service or Relationship: OTHER

Comments: I was wondering what years my step-dad served in the Korean War. I have no information other than his name and birthdate 6/6/40. If anyone has any information I'd appreciate it. Thank you, Sheri Sholer

Keywords:


Entry: 60116
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
CAMP KAISER

PALMER R. HAMILTON wrote on February 25, 2007


City and State: MARSHALL MI

Unit: HQ - HQ CO 3RD INFANTRY

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: I would like to hear from my friends above who were at Camp Kaiser during 1959-60

Keywords: Peersonal friends: Richard E. White, Louis C. Gourley and Thomas Mcgrath.


Entry: 60115
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
CAMP KAISER 1959-60

PALMER R. HAMILTON wrote on February 25, 2007


City and State: MARSHALL MI

Unit: HQ - HQ CO 3RD INFANTRY

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: I would like to hear from my friends or anyone who served at Camp Kaiser during 1959-60.

Keywords: Personal friends: Richard E. White, Louis C. Gourley, Thomas MCgrath


Entry: 60114
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
1959-60

PALMER R. HAMILTON wrote on February 24, 2007


City and State: MARSHALL MI

Unit: 3RD INFANTRY

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: I would like to hear from anyone who was at Camp, Kiser in 1959-60

Keywords: HQ and HQ Co 3RD Infantry


Entry: 60113
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
STATIONED ON HILL 754 IN L96L-L963

MACK WEBSTER wrote on February 24, 2007


City and State:

Unit:

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments:

Keywords: Hill 754


Entry: 60100
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
DMZ 1967-1968

PAUL MORALES SR. wrote on February 22, 2007


City and State: BROOKLYN. NY

Unit: CO.C,1/9TH INF.2ND INF. DIV.

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: This Battle Was a Nightmare!By the Grace OF GOD we are alive today! Since 2004, I am engaged in Another Battle against the "VA" The Korean DMZ Firefights, Hostilites,WIA,KIA are considered Non-combat! the PH awarded to us "Wounds recieved as result of enemy action" The CIB hard to get, PTSD: Korean DMZ vet 0-30% max. Disability increase hard to get.Good News!Rodney this evening I saw your name,same unit,battle,PH general order #29,your picture in my 1967 Camp Custer year book! KEEP UP THE FIRE MANCHUS!

Keywords: Member of the "Quick Reaction Forces" sent to Position 104, Battle at 2:30 A.M. JANUARY 25,1968


Entry: 60094
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
LOOKING FOR FRIENDS

BOB GUZICK wrote on February 22, 2007


City and State: POTTSVILLE PA

Unit: 6TH.BATT.80TH.ARTY

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: some names i remember are,paul flaherty,jim cansler,riggerman,sargent gattes,paul conners.

Keywords: looking for guys who were there from sept.68-oct.69 at camp knox.


Entry: 60032
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
1ST CAV. HONOR GUARD CAMP HOWZE

BILL PAYMASTER wrote on February 15, 2007


City and State:

Unit:

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: Sreved in the 1st Cav. Honor Guard 63-64. One of the best times of my life.
Kenny Clark, from Oakland Calf. Hi!


Keywords: 1st Cav Honor Guard, Camp Howze.


Entry: 60021
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
CO.B 7TH MED BN

STEVE FOSTER wrote on February 13, 2007


City and State: FREEDOM IN

Unit: CO.B 7TH MED BN

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: would like to hear from anyone who served with 7th med. b co. during 65-66

Keywords:


Entry: 59957
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
PHILIP GRIGS-CASEY JONES WHERE ARE YOU

NORM TALIAFERRO wrote on February 8, 2007


City and State: GEORGETOWN TX

Unit: 38TH ORD CO DS

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments:

Keywords:


Entry: 59949
DMZ 1960 TO 1969

LEO ORTIZ wrote on February 7, 2007


City and State: OTISVILEE NY

Unit:

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: LOOKING FOR FRIENDS THAT SEVED IN 1968-69

Keywords: 2ND ENGR. BATTALION A COMPANY 1 PLATON CAMP CASEY


Entry: 59891
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
6981ST 59-60-61

JIM SIMMONS wrote on February 2, 2007


City and State:

Unit:

Service or Relationship: AIR FORCE VETERAN

Comments: LOOKING FOR STEVE SALMONSEN'S EMAIL, TRYING TO ANSWER HIS QUERYFROM 01/2004--HAVE LOTS OF INFO....JUST FOUND THIS SITE 02/2007

Keywords:


Entry: 59879
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
1ST BN. 25TH TAB. 69-70

PAUL SANDBRINK wrote on February 1, 2007


City and State:

Unit: C BATTERY 1ST OF 25TH TAB

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: IN SECOND TOUR WAS 2ND INFANTRY DIV. 1ST OF 32ND ART.

Keywords: CAMP RED CLOUD,



Entry: 59854
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
CAMP KAISER 4TH. MISSEL HONEST JOHN ROCKET

WALDO LOWERY SR. wrote on January 30, 2007


City and State: SPRINGFIELD MO

Unit: 4TH.MISSELCOM.HONESTJOHNROCKET

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments:

Keywords: searching for any one from 1959 to 1960 at camp kaiser who served at that time?


Entry: 59849
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
HELP

CAROLYN NEARHOOF wrote on January 30, 2007


City and State: JOHNSTOWN PA

Unit:

Service or Relationship: OTHER

Comments: Anyone who was in Korea at the DMZ in May of 1965-1966 please contact me. I am trying to help a fellow vet piece together his life.

Keywords: 5th battilion 38 artillary battery b 2nd division


Entry: 59839
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
LOOKING FOR LIFE SAVING CHAPLAIN AND CHAPLAINS ASSISTANT

JAMES MCCONNELL wrote on January 29, 2007


City and State: MARION IN

Unit: US ARMY RETIRED, VA CHAPLAIN

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: For several years we have been trying to find a chaplain or chaplain assistant assigned to Camp Rose, Korea, in 1964-66 time frame who helped save the life of a young Korean orphan girl. We are especially looking for the Enlisted Man (Chaplain Assistant) who was involved in this. Most likely they were assigned to Headquartes Company on the compound.
If you have the names or more information about this incident please let us know. Other retired Chaplains are wanting to find these two.

James A. McConnell, Chaplain US Army, Retired


Keywords:


Entry: 59635
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
LUCKEE JENKINS

TIM HACKMAN wrote on January 17, 2007


City and State: ORWIGSBURG PA

Unit:

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: Trying to find Luckee Jenkins who was in Camp Coiner January 1968. I think he was originally from TN. Any and all information/help in locating address, tel. no. or email would be greatly appreciated.

Keywords: Camp Coiner, Seoul


Entry: 59627
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
LOOKING

JOHN COOLE wrote on January 17, 2007


City and State: LOVES PARK IL

Unit: 7TH INF DIV.

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments:

Keywords: LOOKING FOR THE NAMES OF 4 GI'S KILLED ON THE DMZ OCT. 18 1969 KOREA FROM THE 7TH INF DIV. RIDING IN A JEEP WITH A WHITE FLAG ON THE JEEP.


Entry: 59619
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
CAMP KAISER 1960-1961

MILTON HARRIS wrote on January 16, 2007


City and State: BOSS MO

Unit: HQ-HQ CO 1ST BG 32INF

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: would like to talk to anybody that was thier in 1960- 1961

Keywords:


Entry: 59614
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
LT. PAT J. LONG

SAM ROBERTSON wrote on January 15, 2007


City and State: PRATTVILLE AL

Unit: OC 69-67

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: I am searching for classmates for my OCS class at Ft Benning. While many of us were in Nam we have heard that our classmate Lt. Pat J. Long was killed by a North Korean ambush on the DMZ, probably in 1968-1970. His HOR was Buffalo, NY. Any help or suggestions would be appreciated.

Sam Robertson
onsitesam@charter.net


Keywords: Lt. Pat J. Long


Entry: 59546
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
BOB ELDER MAR 68 TO MAR 69

BOB ELDER wrote on January 10, 2007


City and State: SAN JOSE CA

Unit: 2ND MED, 2ND INF DIV.

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: Anybody been there?

Keywords:


Entry: 59510
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
7TH AVIATION BT., CP. CASEY, 1965-66, BFOOBBS

SAMUEL DAVIS wrote on January 7, 2007


City and State: MONTGOMERY WV

Unit: 7TH AVN. BTN., HQ. CO., AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: I served as an air traffic controller at A220, main 7th infantry division airfield at Camp Casey from October, 1965 to November 1966. My fellow air traffic controller, Bob Pomroy, and I are thinking of making a return trip to see Camp Casey and Tongduchon. Any advice is appreciated. Would love to hear from any of the commo. guys, especially BFOOBBs, from that time.

Keywords: Sam, Pom, Wolfu, Commo. platoon, control tower, air traffic control, 7th aviation battalion, lucky 7


Entry: 59445
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
2 BG,3RD INF. 7TH INF DIV. ECHO CO.

DAVE SCOBY wrote on January 1, 2007


City and State: PASADENA TX

Unit: 2ND BG,3RD INF.7TH INF DIV.

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: Served with this unit at Camp Kaiser,Korea,March 61 to April 62 and the year before that with same unit at Ft.Benning Ga. in the 1st BG,11 th Inf. 2nd Inf. Division.Seeking contact with men of Echo co. especially 3rd and 4 th platoon.

Keywords:


Entry: 59444
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
CAMP HARTELL 66-67

HARLEY BURD wrote on January 1, 2007


City and State: YUKON OK

Unit: HQ-HHB 1/79 ARTY 7TH INF DIV

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: Hello to all who served in Korea
I was at Camp Hartell between Feb 66 to March or April 67. Camp Hartell was right next to the town of Munsan, and the Munsan-Chon river, which would flood our motor pool in the rainy season, we'd have to swim out and save the 55 gallon barrel's from floating over the 12 foot high fence, during the winter the river would seem to turn into a glacier.
You may remember me as I was HHB mail clerk, and would deliver and pickup the mail from the firing battiers.
I remember the re-insurgent from the North in 67.
From what i can find out, they shut Camp Hartell down in 1968?

Here is a site I find very useful:
http://www.7thinfantry.com/

Happy New Year.....Proud to have served....Harley


Keywords: 7th Inf Div, Korea, 66-67, Camp Hartell


Entry: 59430
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
HARGROVE-DIED1960

ARNOLD PERRAS SR. wrote on December 30, 2006


City and State: PITTSFIELD MA

Unit: 10TH CAVALRY

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: Does Camp Kaiser or Hargrove field still exist. Did anyone know Hargrove or family

Keywords: Camp Kaiser


Entry: 59381
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
HQ/HQ 6BN 44TH ADA 67-68

DONALD (DON) BUCKENMEYER SR. wrote on November 12, 2006


City and State: GLENDALE AZ

Unit: HQ/HQ 6BN 44TH ADA

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: Need verification of an incident during the release of POW's as well as Cpt. Lloyd Bucher, serving for the US Navy off of the coast of Korea on the U.S.S. Pueblo. I was driving the ABC News Correspondent and 1 Army Lt. Col.from Seoul to Panmunjom to document the release of the US POW's and 1 KIA. I am originally from the San Francisco Bay Area AND HOPING TO FIND Cpt. (Chaplin) Wilcox, Cpt. Bob Davidson from Seattle/ State of Washington area where he studied Law prior to being drafted. Please respond if you possibly know even a possibility of assistance.
Thanks Don Buckenmeyer SP4


Keywords: Looking for ANYONE that may have served w/me during 67 and or 68.


Entry: 59359
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
RETURN OF CPT BUCKER, CREWMEMBERS AND 1 KIA (USS PUEBLO) 12/23/68

DONALD (DON) BUCKENMEYER SR. wrote on October 25, 2006


City and State: GLENDALE AZ

Unit: HQ/HQ BTRY 6/44TH ADA

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: Looking for ANY ONE TO VALIDATE the Chaplain (Cpt Wilcox) also assigned to 6/44th and his assistand in (self). When Chaplain went on R and R to Conus during Christmas time 1968. I was elected by my Commanding Officer to sign out a jeep and report to a Hq MP Unit @ the Army installation in Seoul to pick up a Army Col with a ABC News Correspondent that was coming into country for his assignment which was to witness and document the return of 82 Crewmembers,1 KIA and Captain Lloyd Bucher of the USS Pueblo. After accomplishing this mission and "backpeddaling" away from "freedom Bridge" and out of the "z", we returned to the 2d Inf Div Chow hall for debriefing then instructed to return this Correspondent to seoul where he would then be taken to Kimpo Air Base and return too ABC News HQ in NY with his story to be televised in the CONUS.
A short time after departing Panmunjom I had the misfortune of hitting with my drivers side rear view mirror and remembering only a Loud thump, the mirror shattering, and bloddy chunks of hair and skul material covering a sizeable portion of the clear plastic door/windows on the jeeps at that time, and then the left rear wheel seeming to jump up from the body.

Not a prideful reflection for a single parent for more than 24 yrs. Dad raising 2 children one with terminal Leukemia ( now in remission). I've already been granted 100% PTSD by the VA and Social Security. My case has been "overturned" by the Veterans Appelate Court in DC and returned to Phx VARO for what?,........I don't know. Now I am told that in order to putthis behind me, I am Hoping that someone out there remembered me and Dec 23d the date of occurance.
If you took the time to read this I thank you with deep sincerity, and if we kew each other while in country, I would enjoy hearing from any of you.

Reguards,

Don


Keywords: "Buck" Friends:: Mike Woods, Santa Cruz, Ca, Jerry Hammontree, Robert Rivera, New Orleans- Cpt Bob Davidson (XO) from state of Washington.


Entry: 59299
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
BROTHERS IN 59TH AV

DEV DAWES SR. wrote on October 20, 2006


City and State: OAKLEY KS

Unit: 59TH AV

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: I would like to visit old buddies

Keywords: 59th av-7th av


Entry: 59294
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
IMPORTANT AGENT ORANGE INFO.

JOHN RUZALSKI JR. wrote on October 20, 2006


City and State: LORDS VALLEY PA

Unit: HHC 3/32 ND.INF.7 TH.INF.DIV.

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: Department of Veterans Affairs

Report

REPORT TO TO SECRETARY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS

ON THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS

AND EXPOSURE TO AGENT ORANGE



CLASSIFIED
CONFIDENTIAL STATUS (1)



As Reported by Special Assistant

Admiral E.R. Zumwalt, Jr.

May 5, 1990





NOT FOR PUBLICATION AND

RELEASE TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC




1. INTRODUCTION

On October 6, 1989 I was appointed as special assistant to Secretary Derwinski of the Department of Veterans Affairs to assist the Secretary in determining whether it is at least as likely as not that there is a statistical association between exposure to Agent Orange and a specific adverse health effect.

As special assistant, I was entrusted with evaluating the numerous data relevant to the statistical association between exposure to Agent Orange and the specific adverse health effects manifested by veterans who saw active duty in Vietnam. Such evaluations were made in accordance with the standards set forth in Public Law 98-542, the Veterans Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards Act and 38 C.F.R. 1.17, regulations of the Department of Veterans Affairs concerning the evaluation of studies relating to health effects of dioxin and radiation exposure.

Consistent with my responsibilities as special assistant, I reviewed and evaluated the work of the Scientific Council of the Veterans Advisory Committee on Environmental Hazards and commissioned independent scientific experts to assist me in evaluating the validity of numerous human and animal studies on the effects of exposure to Agent Orange and/or exposure to herbicides containing 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin). In addition, I reviewed and evaluated the protocol and standards employed by government sponsored studies

2



to assess such studies credibility, fairness and consistency with generally accepted scientific practices.

After reviewing the scientific literature related to the health effects of Vietnam Veterans exposed to Agent Orange as well as other studies concerning the health hazards of civilian exposure to dioxin contaminants, I conclude that there is adequate evidence for the Secretary to reasonably conclude that it is at least as likely as not that there is a relationship between exposure to Agent Orange and the following health problems: nonHodgkins lymphoma, chloracne and other skin disorders, lip cancer, bone cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, birth defects, skin cancer, porphyria cutanea tarda and other liver disorders, Hodgkins disease, hematopoietic diseases, multiple myeloma, neurological defects, autoimmune diseases and disorders, leukemia, lung cancer, kidney cancer, malignant melanoma, pancreatic cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer, nasal/pharyngeal/esophageal cancers, prostate cancer, testicular cancer, liver cancer, brain cancer, psychosocial effects and gastrointestinal diseases.

I further conclude that the Veterans Advisory Committee on Environmental Hazards has not acted with impartiality in its review and assessment of the scientific evidence related to the association of adverse health effects and exposure to Agent Orange.

In addition to providing evidence in support of the conclusions stated above, this report provides the Secretary with

3



a review of the scientific, political and legal efforts that have occurred over the last decade to establish that Vietnam Veterans who have been exposed to Agent Orange are in fact entitled to compensation for various illnesses as service-related injuries.

II. AGENT ORANGE USAGE IN VIETNAM

Agent Orange was a 50:50 mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. The latter component, 2,4,5-T, was found to contain the contaminant TCDD or 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (i.e. dioxin), which is regarded as one of the most toxic chemicals known to man.1

From 1962 to 1971 the United States military sprayed theherbicide Agent Orange to accomplish the following objectives: 1)

______________________

1 See CDC Protocol for Epidemiologic Studies on the Health of Vietnam Veterans (November, 1983), p. 4 ( The CDC Protocol also contains a literature review as of 1983 of the health effects on animals and humans exposed to herbicides and dioxin, pp. 63-78. The literature review documents health problems such as chloracne, immunological suppression, neurological and psychological effects, reproductive problems such as birth defects, carcinogenic effects such as soft tissue sarcomas, lymphomas and thyroid tumors, and various gastrointestinal disorders) ; See also General Accounting Office, "Report by the Comptroller General: Health Effects of Exposure to Herbicide Orange in South Vietnam Should Be Resolved," GAO-CED-79-22 at 2 (April 6, 1979) (hereinafter GAO Report, 1979).

Dioxin is a family of chemicals (75 in all) that does not occur naturally, nor is it intentionally manufactured by any industry. The most toxic dioxin is called 2,3,7,8  TCDD. Dioxins are produced as byproducts of the manufacture of some herbicides ( for example, 2,4, 5T), wood preservatives made from trichlorophenals, and some germicides. Dioxins are also produced by the manufacture of pulp and paper, by the combustion of wood in the presence of chlorine, by fires involving chlorinated benzenes and biphenyls (e.g. PCBs), by the exhaust of automobiles burning leaded fuel, and by municipal solid waste incinerators

4



defoliate jungle terrain to improve observation and prevent enemy ambush; 2) destroy food crops; and 3) clear Vegetation around military installations, landing zones, fire base camps, and trails 2

Unlike civilian applications of the components contained in Agent Orange which are diluted in oil and water, Agent Orange was sprayed undiluted in Vietnam. Military applications were sprayed at the rate of approximately 3 gallons per acre and contained approximately 12 pounds of 2,4-D and 13.8 pounds of 2,4,5-T.3

Although the military dispensed Agent Orange in concentrations 6 to 25 times the manufacturers suggested rate, "at that time the Department of Defense (DOD) did not consider herbicide orange toxic or dangerous to humans and took few precautions to prevent exposure to it." Yet, evidence readily suggests that at the time of its use experts knew that Agent Orange was harmful to military personnel.5

__________________

2 See Bruce Myers, "Soldier of Orange: The Administrative, Diplomatic, Legislative and Litigatory Impact of Herbicide Agent Orange in South Vietnam," 8 B. C. Envt. Aff. L. Rev. 159, 162 (1979).

3 See GAO Report, 1979 at 2, 3 n.1; See also Myers, 8 B.C. Envt Aff. L. Rev, at 162. In contrast, civilian applications of 2,4,5T varied from 1 to 4 pounds per acre.

4 General Accounting Office, Ground Troops in South Vietnam Were in Areas Sprayed with Herbicide Orange," FPCD 80-23, p.1 (November 16, 1979).

5 Letter from Dr. James R. Clary to Senator Tom Daschle (September 9, 1988). Dr. Clary is a former government scientist with the Chemical Weapons. Branch,. BW/CW Division, Air Force Armament Development Laboratory, Eglin APE, Florida. Dr. Clary was instrumental in designing the specifications for the A/A 45y-l spray tank (ADO 42) and was also the scientist who prepared the

5



The bulk of Agent Orange herbicides used in Vietnam were reportedly sprayed from "Operation Ranch Hand" fixed wing aircraft. Smaller quantities were applied from helicopters, trucks, riverboats, and by hand. Although voluminous records of Ranch Hand missions are contained in computer records, otherwise known as the HERBS and Service HERBs tapes, a significant, if not major source of exposure for ground forces was from non recorded, non Ranch Hand operations.6

Widespread use of Agent Orange coincided with the massive buildup of U.S. military personnel in Vietnam, reaching a peak in

_________________

final report on Ranch Hand: Herbicide Operations in SEA, July 1979. According to Dr. Clary:

When we (military scientists) initiated the herbicide program in the 1960s, we were aware of the potential for damage due to dioxin contamination in the herbicide. We were even aware that the military6 formulation had a higher dioxin concentration than the civilian version due to the lower cost and speed of manufacture. However, because the material was to be used on the enemy, none of us were overly concerned. We never considered a scenario in which. our own personnel would become contaminated with the herbicide. And, if we had, we would have expected our own government to give assistance to veterans so contaminated.

See also notes 13, 73-75 and accompanying text infra for additional information of the manufacturers awareness of the toxicity of Agent Orange.

6 Combat units, such as the Brown Water Navy, frequently conducted "unofficial" sprayings of Agent Orange obtained from out of channel, and thus unrecorded sources. Additionally, as Commander, U.S. Naval Forces, Vietnam, I was aware that Agent Orange issued to Allied forces was frequently used on unrecorded missions.

6



1969 and eventually stopping in 1971. 7 Thus, according to an official of the then Veterans Administration, it was "theoretically possible that about 4.2 million American soldiers could have made transient or significant contact with the herbicides because of [the Ranch Hand Operation]." 8

A. REASONS FOR PHASE OUT

Beginning as early as 1968, scientists, health officials, politicians and the military itself began to express concerns about the potential toxicity of Agent Orange and its contaminant dioxin to humans. For instance, in February 1969 The Bionetics Research Council Committee ("BRC) in a report commissioned by the United States Department of Agriculture found that 2,4,5-T showed a "significant potential to increase birth defects." 9 Within four months after the BRC report, Vietnamese newspapers began reporting significant increases in human birth defects ostensibly due to exposure to Agent Orange.10

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7 GAO Report 1979, supra note 1, at 29. See also note 82 and accompanying text infra for a discussion of the correlation between the spraying of Agent Orange and the hospitalization of Vietnam soldiers for disease and non-battle related injuries.

8 House Comm. on Veterans Affairs, 95th Cong., 2d Sess., Herbicide "Agent Orange". Hearings before the Subcommittee on Medical Facilities and Benefits, (Oct. 11, 1978) (Statement of Maj. Sen. Garth Dettinger USAF, Deputy Surgeon General USAF at 12).

9 Myers at 166.

10 Id While birth defects did significantly increase in Saigon, critics contend that Saigon was not an area where the preponderance of defoliation missions were flown and argue that such increases were due primarily to the influx of U.S. medical personnel who kept better records of birth defects. Subsequent

7



By October, 1969, the National Institute of Health confirmed that 2,4,5T could cause malformations and stillbirths in mice, thereby prompting the Department of Defense to announce a partial curtailment of its Agent Orange spraying.11

By April 15, 1970, the public outcry and mounting scientific evidence caused the Surgeon General of the United States to issue a warning that the use of 2,4,5-T might be hazardous to "our health". 12

On the same day, the Secretaries of Agriculture, Health Education and Welfare, and the Interior, stirred by the publication of studies that indicated 2,4,5-T was a teratogen (i.e. caused birth defects), jointly announced the suspension of its use around lakes, ponds, ditch banks, recreation areas and

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studies in Vietnam confirm the incidence of increased birth defects among civilian populations exposed to Agent Orange. See e.g. Phuong, et. al. "An Estimate of Reproductive Abnormalities in Women Inhabiting Herbicide Sprayed and Non-herbicide Sprayed Areas in the South of Vietnam, 152-1981 18 Chemospere 843-846 (1989) (significant statistical difference between hydatidiform mole and congenital malformations between populations potentially exposed and not exposed to TCDD); Phuong, et. al., "An Estimate of Differences Among Women Giving Birth to Deformed Babies and Among Those with Hydatidiform Mole Seen at the OB-GYN Hospital of Ho Chi Minh City in the South of Vietnam," 18 Chemosphere 801-803 (1989) (statistically significant connection between frequency of the occurrence of congenital abnormalities and of hydatidiform moles and a history of phenoxyherbicide exposure); Huong, et. al., "An Estimate of the Incidence of birth Defects, Hydatidiform Mole and Fetal Death in Utero Between 1952 and 1985 at the OB-GYN Hospital of Ho Chi Minh City, Republic of Vietnam," 18 Chemosphere 805-810 (l989) (sharp increase in the rate of fetal death in utero, hydatidiform mole (with or without choriocarcinoma) and congenital malformations from the pre 1965-1975 period, suggesting possible association to phenoxyherbicide exposure).

11 Myers at 167

12 Id.

8



homes and crops intended for human consumption.13 The Department of Defense simultaneously announced its suspension of all uses of Agent Orange.14

B. HEALTH STUDIES

As Agent Orange concerns grew, numerous independent studies were conducted between 1974 and 1983 to determine if a link exists between certain cancerous diseases, such as non-Hodgkins lymphoma and soft-tissue sarcomas, and exposure to the chemical components found in Agent Orange. These studies suggested just such a link.

In 1974, for example, Dr. Lennart Hardell began a study which eventually demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between exposure to pesticides containing dioxin and the development of soft tissue sarcomas.15

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13 Id. Although Dow Chemical Company, the primary manufacturer of 2,45-T and 2,4-D, denied this teratogenicity, Dows own tests confirmed that when dioxin was present in quantities exceeding production specifications, birth defects did occur. See J. McCullough, Herbicides: Environmental Health Effects: Vietnam and the Geneva Protocol: Developments During 1979, 13 (1970) (Congressional Research Report No. UG 447, 70303SP). Pressure from industry subsequently led to some relaxation of the limits placed on the 2,4,5T and 2,4D. The only current uses for these chemicals in the United States are on rice, pastures, rangelands and rights of way.

14 Id. at 167. See also Dow Chemical v. Ruckelshaus, 477 F.2d 1317, 1319 (8th Cir. 1973) (secretaries announcement quoted in the opinion).

15 Hardell, L. and Sandstrom, A. "Casecontrol Study: Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Exposure to Phenoxyacetic Acids or Chlorophenols," 39 Brit. J. Cancer, 711717 (1979). See also note 89 infra for the confirming results of follow-up studies by Hardell and others.

9



In 1974, Axelson and Sundell reported a twofold increase of cancer in a cohort study of Swedish railway workers exposed to a variety of herbicides containing dioxin contaminants.16

By 1976, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, established rigorous exposure criteria for workers working with 2,4, 5-T.1 17

In 1977 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), while cautioning that the overall data was inconclusive, reported numerous anomalies and increased mortality rates in animals and humans exposed to 2,4-D or 2,4,5-T.18

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16 Axelson and Sundell, "Herbicide Exposure, Mortality and Tumor Incidence: An Epidemiological Investigation on Swedish Railroad Workers," 11 Work Envt. Health 21-28 (1974).

17 U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (1976), Air Contaminants; U.S. Code, Federal Register 29, Part 1910.93 at p. 27

18 With regard to 2,4-D, the IARC found the following anomalies: elevated levels of cancer in rats; acute and shortterm oral toxicity in mice, rabbits, guinea pigs and rats-death, stiffness in the extremities, incoordination, stupor, myotonia, and other physical abnormalities; inmonkeys, injections caused nausea, vomiting, lethargy, muscular incoordination and head droop, fatty degeneration of the liver, spleen, kidneys and heart; foetal anomaly increases in some species; postbirth death rates increased in some. species; higher mortality rates and morphological alterations in pheasant embryos and their chicks when spraying took place under simulated field conditions; higher mortality rates in rat pups in a 3 generation exposure; gene mutation after exposure to high concentrations; chromosomal aberrations when cultured human lymphocytes were exposed; increased frequency of aberrant metaphases (2 to 4 times) in mice exposed to toxic concentrations.

In humans the IARC found that: a 23 year old farming student, a suicide, had 6 grams of 2,4-D in his body, acute congestion of all organs, severe degeneration of ganglion cells in the central nervous system; 3 cases of peripheral neuropathy in humans sprayed with 2,4-D with initial symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, swelling and aching of feet and legs with latency, in individual cases, paresthesia in the extremities, pain in the legs, numbness and aching of fingers and toes, swelling in hand joints, flaccid

10



In 1978, the Environmental Protection Agency issued an emergency suspension of the spraying of 2,4,5-T in national forests after finding "a statistically significant increase in the frequency of miscarriages" among women living near forests sprayed with 2,4,5-T.19

In 1980, another provocative mortality study of workers

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parapheresis; similar case reports in agriculture workers sprayed by 2,4-D; workers associated with 2,4D developed symptoms of somnolence, anorexia, gastralgia, increased salivation, a sweet taste in the mouth, a sensation of drunkenness, heaviness of the legs and hyperacusea, rapid fatigue, headache, loss of appetite, pains in the region of liver and stomach, weakness, vertigo, hypotension, bradycardia, dyspeptic symptoms, gastritis, liver disfunction, changes in metabolic processes..

With regard to 2,4,5Vs effect on animals the IARC found: it can increase the frequency of cleft palates in some strains of mice; fetal growth retardation may also be observed; cystic kidneys were observed in two strains of mice; in purest available form, it induced some fetal effects and skeletal anomalies in rats as well as behavioral abnormalities, changes in thyroid activity and brain serotonin levels in the progeny; increases in intrauterine deaths and in malformations in rats; fetal death and teratogenic effects in Syrian golden hamsters; chromosomal abnormalities.

The IARC reported in 1977 with respect to 2,4,5-Ts effects on humans that: workers exposed at a factory in the USSR had skin lesions, acne, liver impairment, and neurasthenic syndrome; similar findings were reported by Jerasneh, et al (1973, 1974) in a factory in Czechoslovakia which in 196568 produced 76 cases of chloracne, 2 deaths from bronchogenic cancers. Some workers had porphyria cutanea tarda, urophryimuria, abnormal liver tests, severe neurasthenia, depression syndrome, peripheral neuropathy; in a 1975 accident in West Virginia, 228 people were affected. Symptoms included chloracne, melanosis, muscular aches and pains, fatigue, nervousness, intolerance to cold; 4 workers of 50 affected in a similar accident in the Netherlands in 1963 died within 2 years and at least 10 still had skin complaints 13 years later.

19 June 1979 Congressional Hearings before House Commerce Committee. Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, quoted in "Human Disease Linked to Dioxin: Congress Calls for 2,4,5T Ban After Dramatic Herbicide Hearings", 28 Bioscience 454 (August 1979). This study, otherwise known as the Alsea Study, has been cited as showing the first correlation between 2,4,5T (and presumably its TCDD contaminant) and teratogenic effects in humans.

11



involved in an accident at an industrial plant which manufactured dioxin compounds suggested that exposure to these compounds resulted in excessive deaths from neoplasms of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues. 20

On September 22, 1980, the U.S. Interagency Work Group to Study the Long-term Health Effects of Phenoxy Herbicides and Contaminants concluded "that despite the studies limitations, they do show a correlation between exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides and an increased risk of developing soft-tissue tumors or malignant lymphomas."21

To be sure, there remain skeptics who insist that the studies failed in one respect or another to establish a scientifically acceptable correlation.22 Yet, it can fairly be said that the general attitude both within and outside the scientific community was, and continues to be increasing concern over the mounting evidence of a connection between certain cancer

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20 Zack and Suskind, "The Mortality Experience of Workers Exposed to TCDD in a Trichlorophenol Process Accident," 22 Journal of Medicine 1114 (1980).

21 See U.S. Interagency Workgroup to Study the Long-Term Health Effects of Phenoxy Herbicides and Contaminants (September 22, 1980) (executive summary).

22 See...e.g. "The Weight of the Evidence on the Human Carcinogenicity of 2,4D" (January 1990) (This report, sponsored by the National Association of Wheat Growers Foundation and a grant from the Industry Task Force II on 2,4D Research Data, an association of manufacturers and commercial formulators of 2,4D, concluded that the toxicological data on 2,4-D does not provide a strong basis for predicting that 2,4-D is carcinogenic to humans. Nevertheless, the panel reviewing the evidence did conclude that "evidence indicates that it is possible that exposure to 2,4-D can cause cancer in humans.").

12



(

illnesses and exposure to dioxins.

III. VETERANS DIOXIN AND RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION
STANDARDS ACT OF 1984

With the increasing volume of scientific literature giving credence to the belief of many Vietnam Veterans that exposure to Agent Orange during their military service was related to their contraction of several debilitating diseases -- particularly non-Hodgkins lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma ("STS") (malignant tumors that form in muscle fat, or fibrous connective tissue) and porphyria cutanea tarda ("PCT") (deficiencies in liver enzymes) --Vietnam Veterans rightfully sought disability compensation from the Veterans Administration ("VA").

The VA determined, however, that the vast majority of claimants were not entitled to compensation since they did not have service connected illnesses. 23 As a consequence, Congress attempted to alter dramatically the process governing Agent Orange disability claims through passage of the Veterans Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards Act of 1984

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23 By October 1, 1983, 9170 veterans filed claims for disabilities that they alleged were caused by exposure to Agent Orange. The VA denied compensation to 7709 claimants on the grounds that the claimed diseases were not service connected. Only one disease was deemed associated with service related exposure to Agent Orange, a skin condition known as chloracne. See House Report No. 98-592, reprinted in U.S.Code Cong. and Adm. News, 98th Cong. 2d Sess.,1984, at 4452. See also Nehmer v. U.S. Veterans Administration, 712 F.Supp. 1404, 1407 (1989).

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(hereinafter the "Dioxin Standards Act") 24 To ensure that the VA provided disability compensation to veterans exposed to herbicides containing dioxin while serving in Vietnam,25 Congress authorized the VA to conduct rulemaking to determine those diseases that were entitled to compensation as a result of a service--related exposure to Agent Orange.26

In promulgating such rules, the Dioxin Standards Act required the VA to appoint a Veterans Advisory Committee on Environmental Hazards (the "Advisory Committee") -- composed of experts in dioxin, experts in epidemiology, and interested members of the public -- to review the scientific literature on dioxin and submit periodic recommendations and evaluations to the Administrator of the 27 Such experts were directed to evaluate the scientific evidence pursuant to regulations promulgated by the VA, and thereafter to submit recommendations

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24 Veterans Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards Act, Pub. L. 98542, Oct. 24, 1984, 98 Stat. 2727 (hereinafter the Dioxin Standards Act). In passing the Act Congress found that Vietnam Veterans were "deeply concerned about possible long term health effects of exposure to herbicides containing dioxin,"(Section 2 (1)), particularly since "(t)here is scientific and medical uncertainty regarding such longterm adverse health effects." (Section 2 (2)). In responding to this uncertainty, Congress mandated that "thorough epidemiological studies of the health effects experienced by veterans in connection with exposure . to herbicides containing dioxin" be conducted, (Section 2(4)), especially in light of the fact that "[t)here is some evidence that chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, and soft tissue sarcoma are associated with exposure to certain levels of dioxin as found in some herbicides." (Section 2 (5)).

25 Id. at Section 3.

26 Id. at Section 5.

27 Id. at Section 6.

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and evaluations to the Administrator of the VA on whether "sound scientific or medical evidence" indicated a connection to exposure to Agent Orange and the manifestation of various diseases.28

In recognition of the uncertain state of scientific evidence and the inability to make an absolute causal connection between exposure to herbicides containing dioxin and affliction with various rare cancer diseases,29 Congress mandated that the VA Administrator resolve any doubt in favor of the veteran seeking compensation. As stated in the Dioxin Standards Act:

It has always been the policy of the Veterans Administration and is the policy of the United States, with respect to individual claims for service connection of diseases and disabilities, that when, after consideration of all the evidence and material of record, there is an approximate balance of positive and negative evidence regarding the merits of an issue material to the determination of a claim, the benefit of the doubt in resolving each such issue shall be given to the claimant. 30

A. NEHMER V. U.S. VETERANS ADMINISTRATION

Despite Congressional intent to give the veteran the benefit of the doubt, and in direct opposition to the stated purpose of

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28 Id. at Section 5.

29 See Nehmer v. U.S. Veterans Admin., 712 F. Supp. 1404, 1408. (N.D. Cal. (1989). wherein the court found after reviewing the legislative history of the Act "that Congress intended service connection to be granted on the basis of "increased risk of incidence" or a "significant correlation" between dioxin and various diseases," rather than on the basis of a casual relationship.

30 See Dioxin Standards Act at Section 2 (23).

15



the Dioxin Standards Act to provide disability compensation to Vietnam Veterans suffering with cancer who were exposed to Agent Orange, the VA continued to deny compensation improperly to over 31,000 veterans with just such claims. In fact, in promulgating the rules specified by Dioxin Standards Act, the VA not only confounded the intent of the Congress, but directly contradicted its- own established practice of granting compensable service-connection status for diseases on the lesser showing of a statistical association, promulgating instead the more stringent requirement that compensation depends on establishing a cause and effect relationship.31

Mounting a challenge to the regulations, Veterans groups prosecuted a successful legal action which found that the VA had "both imposed an impermissibly demanding test for grantingservice connection for various diseases and refused to give the

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31 See e.g. 38 C.F.R. 3.310(b) (compensation granted for cardiovascular diseases incurred by veterans who suffered amputations of legs or feet); Nehmer at 1418.

The significance of the distinction between a statistical association and a cause and effect relationship is in the burden of proof that the veteran must satisfy in order to be granted benefits. A statistical association "means that the observed coincidence in variations between exposure to the toxic substance and the adverse health effects is unlikely to be a chance occurrence or happenstance," whereas the cause and effect relationship "describes a much stronger relationship between exposure to a particular toxic substance and the development of a particular disease than statistically significant association does." Nehmer, 712 F.Supp. at 1416.

Thus, the regulation promulgated by the VA established an overly burdensome standard by incorporating the causal relationship test within the text of the regulation itself. 38 C.F.R. 1 3.311(d) ("(s] ound scientific and medical evidence does not establish a cause and effect relationship between dioxin exposure" and any diseases except some cases of chloracne) (emphasis added).

16



veterans the benefit of the doubt in meeting the demanding standard." Nehmer v. U.S. Veterans Administration, 712 F. Supp. 1404, 1423 (1989) (emphasis in original). As a result, the court invalidated the VAs Dioxin regulation which denied service connection for all diseases other than chloracne; ordered the VA to amend its rules; and further ordered that the Advisory Committee reassess its recommendations in light of the courts order.32

Thus, on October 2, 1989, the VA amended 38 C.F.R. Part 1, which among other things set forth various factors for the Secretary and the Advisory Committee to consider in determining whether it is "at least as likely as not" that a scientific study shows a "significant statistical association" between a particular exposure to herbicides containing dioxin and a specific adverse health effect.33 Equally important, the

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32 Nehmer, 712 F. Supp at 1423.

33 38 C.F.R. 1.17 (b) and (d). 38 C.F.R. 1.17 states:
(a) From time to time, the Secretary shall publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health effects of exposure to a herbicide containing 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) and/or exposure to ionizing radiation in the "Notices" section of the Federal Register.
(b) Factors to be considered in evaluating scientific studies include:
(1) Whether the studys findings are statistically significant and replicable.
(2) Whether the study and its findings have withstood peer review.
(3) Whether the study methodology has been sufficiently described to permit replication of the study.
(4) Whether the studys findings are applicable to the veteran population of interest.
(5) The views of the appropriate panel of the Scientific Council of the Veteran Advisory Committee on Environmental Hazards.
(c) When the Secretary determines, based on the evaluation of

17



regulation permits the Secretary to disregard the findings of the Advisory Committee, as well as the standards set forth at 38

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scientific or medical studies and after receiving the advice of the Veterans Advisory Committee on Environmental Hazards and applying the reasonable doubt doctrine as set forth in paragraph (d) (1) of this section, that a significant statistical association exists between any disease and exposure to a herbicide containing dioxin or exposure to ionizing radiation, 3.311a or 3.311b of this title, as appropriate, shall be amended to provide guidelines for the establishment of service connection.
(d) (1) For purposes of paragraph (c) of this section a "significant statistical association" shall be deemed to exist when the relative weights of valid positive and negative studies permit the conclusion that it is at least as likely as not that the purported relationship between a particular type of exposure and a specific adverse health effect exists.
(2) For purposes of this paragraph a valid study is one which:
(i) Had adequately described the study design and methods of data collection, verification and analysis;
(ii) Is reasonably free of biases, such as selection, observation and participation biases; however, if biases exist, the investigator has acknowledged them and so stated the studys conclusions that the biases do not intrude upon those conclusions; and
(iii) Has satisfactorily accounted for known confounding factors.
(3) For purposes of this paragraph a valid positive study is one which satisfies the criteria in paragraph (d) (2) of this section and whose findings are statistically significant at a probability level of .05 or less with proper accounting for multiple comparisons and subgroups analyses.
(4) For purposes of this paragraph a valid negative study is one which satisfies the criteria in paragraph (d) (2) of this section and has sufficient statistical power to detect an association between a particular type of exposure and a specific adverse health effect if such an association were to exist.
(e) For purposes of assessing the relative weights of valid positive and negative studies, other studies affecting epidemiological assessments including case series, correlational studies and studies with insufficient statistical power as well as key mechanistic and animal studies which are found to have particular relevance to an effect on human organ systems may also be considered.
(f) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section, a "significant statistical association" may be deemed to exist between a particular exposure and a specific disease if, in the Secretarys judgment, scientific and medical evidence on the whole supports such a decision.

18



C.F.R. § 1.17 (d) and determine in his own judgment that the scientific and medical evidence supports the existence of a "significant statistical association" between a particular exposure and a specific disease. 38 C.F.R. § 1.17 (f).

The Secretary recently exercised his discretionary authority under this rule when he found a significant statistical association between exposure to Agent Orange and nonHodgkins lymphoma, notwithstanding the failure of his own Advisory Committee to recommend such action in the face of overwhelming scientific data.34

B. . THE WORK OF THE VETERANS ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS

To assess the validity and competency of the work of the Advisory Committee, I asked several impartial scientists to

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34 After reviewing numerous scientific studies, at least four of which were deemed to be valid positive in demonstrating the link . between exposure to herbicides containing dioxin and non--Hodgkins lymphoma, the Advisory Committee still concluded that:

The Committee does not find the evidence sufficient at the present time to conclude that there is a significant statistical association between exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides and nonHodgkins lymphoma. However, the Committee cannot rule out such an association.

The Secretary should be interested to note that a new mortality study positively confirms that farmers exposed to herbicides containing 2,4-D have an increased risk of developing non-Hodgkins lymphoma. See Blair, "Herbicides and Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma: New Evidence From a Study of Saskatchewan Farmers," 82 Journal of the National Cancer Institute 575--582 (1990).

19



review the Advisory Committee transcripts. Without exception, the experts who reviewed the work of the Advisory Committee disagreed with its findings and further questioned the validity of the Advisory Committees review of studies on nonHodgkins lymphomas .

For instance, a distinguished group at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Institute in Seattle, Washington, upon reviewing the Advisory Committee transcripts, concluded "that it is at east., as likely as not that there is a significant association (as defined by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs) between (exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides and non-Hodgkins lymphoma.)" 35 This same group further asserts that the Committees work was "not sensible" and "rather unsatisfactory" in its review and classification of the various studies it reviewed. Additionally, these scientists regarded Dr. Lathrops views as "less than objective" and felt that the possibility exists that "his extreme views (e.g., in respect to the role of dose--response testing) may have unduly affected the Committees work." Finally, the Hutchinson scientists argue that the issue of chemical-specific effects, in which animal studies have been sufficient to demonstrate the carcinogenicity of dioxin, is an important factor "not well cons idered by the Committee." (emphasis in original)

A second reviewer of the Committee. work, Dr. Robert

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35 Letter to Admiral Zumwalt from Dr. Robert W. Day, Director of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center of Seattle, Washington (Feb. 20, 1990).

20



Hartzman (considered one of the U.S. Navys top medical researchers), effectively confirms the views of the Hutchinson group. Dr. Hartzman states that "the preponderance of evidence from the papers reviewed [by the Advisory Committee) weighs heavily in favor of an effect of Agent Orange on increased risk for nonHodgkins lymphoma."36 Dr. Hartzman also attests that:

an inadequate process is being used to evaluate scientific publications for use in public policy. The process uses scientific words like significant at the 5% level and a committee of scientists to produce a decision about a series of publications. But in reality, the Committee was so tied by the process, that a decision which should have been based on scientific data was reduced to vague impressions... Actually, if the reading of the rules of valid negative found in the transcript is correct (a valid negative must be significant at the p=.05 level that is statistically significant on the negative side) none of the papers reviewed are valid negatives. 37

A third reviewing team, Dr. Jeanne Hager Stellman, PhD (Physical Chemistry) and Steven D. Stellman, PhD (Physical Chemistry), also echo the sentiments expressed by the Hutchinson Group and Dr. Hartzman on the validity of the Committees proceedings and conclusions. In fact, the Stellmans detailed annotated bibliography and assessment of numerous cancer studies relevant to herbicide exposure presents a stunning indictment of the Advisory Committees scientific interpretation and policy judgments regarding the link between Agent Orange and Vietnam

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36 Letter to Admiral Zumwalt from Dr. R.J. Hartzman Capt. MC USN (March 7, 1990).

37 Id. at p.3

21



Veterans . 38

A fourth reviewer, a distinguished scientist intimately associated with government sponsored studies on the effects of exposure to Agent Orange, states the same conclusions reached by the other reviewers:

The work of the Veterans Advisory Committee on Environmental Hazards, as documented in their November 2, 1989 transcript, has little or no scientific merit, and should not serve as a basis for compensation or regulatory decisions of any sort...

My analysis of the NHL articles reviewed by the committee reveals striking patterns which indicate to me that it is much more likely than not that a statistical association exists between NHL and herbicide exposure.

As these various reviewers suggest, the Advisory Committees conclusions on the relationship between exposure to Agent Orange and nonHodgkins lymphoma were woefully understated in light of the clear evidence demonstrating a significant statistical association between NHL and exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides such as Agent Orange.

Perhaps more significant than the Committees failure to sake such obvious findings is the distressing conclusion of the independent reviewers that the Committees process is so flawed

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38 See Stellman & Stellman, "A Selection of Papers with Commentaries Relevant to the Science Interpretation and Policy: Agent Orange and Vietnam Veterans, (March 1, 1990) . See also note 51 and accompanying text infra for additional discussion of the Stellmans work.

39 A copy of the anonymous reviewers analysis can be madeavailable for the Secretarys personal .inspection and review. In another paper, this same source stated: "I estimate that the Vietnam Veterans are experiencing a 40% to 50% increase in sarcomas and non--Hodgkins lymphoma rates."

22



as to be useless to the Secretary in making any determination on the effects of Agent Orange. From a mere reading of Committee transcripts, these reviewers detected overt bias in the Committees evaluation of certain studies. In fact, some members of the Advisory Committee and other VA officials have, even before reviewing the evidence, publicly denied the existence of a correlation between exposure to dioxins and adverse health effects.40 This blatant lack of impartiality lends credence to the suspicion that certain individuals may have been unduly influenced in their evaluation of various studies. Furthermore, such bias among Advisory committee members suggests that the Secretary should, in accordance with the Dioxin Standards Act, appoint new personnel to the Advisory Committee.

III. THE CDC STUDIES

Were the faulty conclusions, flawed methodology and noticeable bias of the Advisory Committee an isolated problem, correcting the misdirection would be more manageable. But, experience with other governmental agencies responsible for specifically analyzing and studying the effects of exposure to

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40 For instance, Dr. Lawrence B. Hobson (Director, Office of Environmental Medicine, Veterans Health Services and Research Administration), claims that TCDD presents no threat from the exposures experienced by the veterans and the public at large," and virtually accuses scientists who find that such health effects do exist to be nothing more than witch doctors. See Hobson, Dioxin and Witchcraft" presented at the 5th InternatiOnal Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds (September 1985) .

23



Agent Orange strongly hints at a discernible pattern, if not outright governmental collaboration, to deny compensation to Vietnam Veterans for disabilities associated with exposure to dioxin .

A case in point is the Centers for Disease control ("CDC") . As concerns grew following the first studies of human exposure to Agent Orange, Congress commissioned a large scale epidemiological study to determine the potential health effects for Vietnam Veterans exposed to Agent Orange. Initially, this study was to be conducted by the VA itself. When evidence surfaced, however, of the VAs footdragging in commencing the study (and initial disavowal of any potential harm from exposure to Agent Orange), Congress transferred the responsibility for the study to the CDC in 1983. 41

Unfortunately, as hearings before the Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee on July 11, 1989 revealed, the design, implementation and conclusions of the CDC study were so ill conceived as to suggest that political pressures once again interfered with the kind of professional, unbiased review Congress had sought to obtain.42

The Agent Orange validation study, for example, a study of

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41 See 135 Congressional Record, Statement of Senator Tom Daschle (November 21, 1989); See also Agent Orange Hearings at p.37.

42 Oversight Review of CDCs Agent Orange Study: Hearing Before the Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Overations House of Representatives, 101st Cong., 1st Sess. at p. 71 and 330 (1989) [hereinafter cited as Agent Orange Hearing].

24



the longterm health effects of exposures to herbicides in Vietnam, was supposedly conducted to determine if exposure could, in fact, be estimated.43 After four years and approximately $63 million in federal funds, the CDC concluded that an Agent Orange exposure study could not be done based on military records. 44 This conclusion was based on the results of blood tests of 646 Vietnam Veterans which ostensibly demonstrated that no association existed between serum dioxin levels and military based estimates of the likelihood of exposure to Agent Orange.45 Inexplicably, the CDC then used these "negative" findings to conclude that not only could an exposure study not even be done, but that the "study" which was never even conducted proves that Vietnam Veterans were never exposed to harmful doses of Agent Orange.

Even more disturbing, when the protocol for this "study" and the blood test procedures were examined further, there appeared to be a purposeful effort to sabotage any chance of a meaningful Agent Orange exposure analysis. For , the original protocol for the Agent Orange exposure study understandably called for subject veterans to be tracked by company level

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43 Id. at 37; See also, Protocol for Epidemiologic Studies of the Health of Vietnam Veterans, Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (November, 1983).

44 Agent Orange Hearings at 13 (Statement of Dr. Vernon Houk).

45 Id. at 1213.

25



location.46 By tracking company level units of 200 men, rather than battalions of 1,000 men, the location of men in relation to herbicide applications would be known with greater precision, thereby decreasing the probability that study-subjects would be misclassified as having been or not been exposed to Agent Orange.

However, in 1985 the CDC abruptly changed the protocol to have battalions, rather than companies, serve as the basis for cohort selection and unit location. 47 By the CDCs own admission, changing the protocol to track veterans on the broader batta1ion basis effectively diluted the study for the simple reason that many of the 1,000 men in a battalion were probably not exposed to Agent Orange. Why then did the CDC change the protocol in 1985?

According to Dr. Vernon Houk, Director of the Center for Environmental Health and Injury control, the department within the CDC responsible for conducting the Agent Orange study, the protocol was changed because the CDC concluded that company specific records were unreliable and contained too many gaps of information. As a result, military records could simply not be used to assess exposure.48

_____________________________

46 Id. at 4l.

47 Id. at 38.

48 Agent Orange Hearing: Testimony of Dr. Vernon Houk at 38-40 and 69. Dr. Houk sports an unbounded skepticism for the health hazards of dioxin. He recently endorsed the lessening of the dioxin dumping standard in the State of Georgia at a rate 500 times more lenient than EPA recommended guidelines. See Letter from Dr. Vernon N. Houk to Leonard Ledbetteber, Commissioner Georgia Department of Natural Resources (November 27, 1989).

26



Richard Christian, the former director of the Environmental Study Group of the Department of Defense ("ESG") testified that not only was this conclusion false, but that he had personally informed the CDC that adequate military records existed to identify companyspecific movements as well as spray locations.49 Furthermore, in a February 1985 report to the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, the CDC reported that in analyzing 21 of 50 detailed computer HERBs tapes developed by the ESG on company movements that it was possible to correlate the exposure data to areas sprayed with Agent Orange with consistent results.50 Indeed, a peer reviewed study sponsored by the American Legion conclusively demonstrated that such computerized data could be used to establish a reliable exposure classification system essential to any valid epidemiologic study of Vietnam Veterans.51

In addition to altering the protocol from company units to battalions, the CDC further diluted the study by changing the protocol on the length of time study subjects were to have served in Vietnam. Whereas the original protocol required subjects to have served a minimum of 9 months in combat companies, the CDC reduced the minimum to 6 months. Furthermore, the CDC eliminated

_____________________

49 Agent Orange Hearing, Testimony of Richard Cheristian at 41.

50 Interim Report, Agent Orange Study: Exposure Assessment: Procedures and Statistical Issues. See Also American Legion Magazine Special Issue, "Agent Orange" (1990) at p. 12.

51 Agent Orange Hearing 155-220 (Testimony of Steven and Jeanne Stellman); American Legion and Columbia University Vietnam Experience Study, Environmental Research (December, 1988).

27



from consideration all veterans who served more than one tour in Vietnam. Finally, while the original protocol called only for subjects who served in Vietnam from 1967 to 1968, the years that Agent Orange spraying was at its height, the CDC added an additional 6 months to this time period. The net effect of these various changes was seriously to dilute the possibility that study subjects would have been exposed to Agent Orange, which in turn would impair any epidemiological studys ability to detect increases in disease rate.52

Although the above referenced problems cast serious suspicion on the work of the CDC, perhaps its most controversial

__________________

52 Agent Orange Hearing at 46-49. This "dilution effect" is considered the classic flaw in epidemiological study design. most epidemiologists would try to optimize the chances of observing an effect by including, rather than excluding, the subjects who are most likely to have been exposed to the suspected disease causing agent. This statistical ability to observe an effect if one is present is generally referred to as the "statistical power" of a given study.

When the CDC chose to generalize exposure to Agent Orange to groups of veterans who were less likely, rather than more likely, to be exposed, the power of the study was diluted. For example, if we assume that 1 out of every 5 men who served in Vietnam was exposed to Agent Orange, any possible effects of the exposure will be diluted when the 4 nonexposed men are averaged in. If we assume further that exposure to Agent Orange caused a doubling of the incidence of cancers among the 20% of men exposed, the effect would largely be obscured since 80% of the group being studied would not have been sprayed with Agent Orange and would thus have a normal background rate of cancer. Consequently, only exceptionally large increases in the cancer rate would be discovered and or reach statistical significance in a study group so diluted from the outset. See Agent Orange Hearing at 149 (Testimony of John F. Sommer, Jr., Director National Veterans Affairs and Rehabilitation commission the American Legion).

See also Agent Orange Legislation and Oversight: Hearing Before the Committee on Veterans Affairs, United States Senate, 100th Cong.,(May 12, 1988) (Testimony of Dr. Joel Nichalek) at pp. 65, 66 and 668.

28



action was to determine unilaterally that blood tests taken more than 20 years after a veterans service in Vietnam were the only valid means of determining a veterans exposure to Agent Orange. In addition, Dr. Houk further "assumed" that the halflife for dioxin in the blood was seven years. 53 When the underlying data for Houks assumptions were recently reviewed, however, 11 percent of the blood tests were invalid (i.e. study subjects had higher values of dioxin in their blood in 1987 than in 1982 even though the subjects had no known subsequent exposure to dioxin) and the half lives of dioxin in the remaining study subjects ranged from a low of 2 to a high of 740 years! 54 Yet despite this tremendous variance in the data and the high incidence of false results, Houk and the CDC concluded, rather remarkably, that a large scale exposure study was simply not possible since "negative" blood tests appeared to "confirm" that study subjects were not even exposed to Agent Orange.

Such conclusions are especially suspect given the fact that scientists have consistently cautioned against the use of blood tests as the sole basis for exposure classification. Although blood and adipose tissue tests can be used to confirm that

___________________

53 Agent Orange Hearing at 59. Dr. Houks assumption was based on a study of only 36 former Ranch Handers (members of "Operation Ranch Hand," the Air Force herbicide defoliation program) who had volunteered blood samples in 1982 and 1987.

54 American Legion Magazine Reprint "Agent Orange" at 12 See also Agent Orange Hearing at p. 67 (testimony of Dr. Houk revealed that the senior-statistician on the Agent Orange project believed that the dioxin blood analysis was so flawed there is a substantial likelihood that there is no correlation between the exposure scores and the blood levels).

29



Vietnam veterans were heavily exposed to Agent Orange and the contaminant dioxin55, even the CDCs own researchers have unequivocally stated that "much more has to be learned about the kinetics of dioxin metabolism and half-life before current levels can be used to fully explain historic levels of exposure."56

While the CDCs changes in protocol have been "justified", however unreasonably, on the basis of "scientific" explanations57, what cannot be justified is the evidence of political interference in the design, implementation and drafting of results of the CDC study by Administration officials rather than CDC scientists. As early as 1986, the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Energy and Commerce documented how untutored officials of the Office of Management and Budget (0MB) interfered with and second-guessed the professional judgments of agency scientists and multidisciplinary panels of outside peer review experts

____________________

55 See Kahn, "Dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Blood and Adipose Tissue of Agent Orange Exposed Vietnam Veterans and Matched Controls," 259 Journal of the American Medical Association 1661 (1988). This report found that "Vietnam veterans who were heavily exposed to Agent Orange. exceeded matched control subjects in both blood, and adipose tissue levels of 2,3,7, 8tetrachlorodibenzo-p dioxin (TCDD) but not in the levels of the 12 other 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins and dibenzofurans that were detected. Since only TCDD among these compounds was present in Agent Orange but all are present in the population of the industrialized world, it is likely that the elevated TCDD levels arose from wartime exposure."

56 Patterson, "Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Workers Exposed to 2,3,7,8 --tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin,. 16 American Journal of Industrial Medicine 135, 144 (1989).

57 See generallv, Agent Orange Hearing (Testimony of Dr. Vernon Houk) at 44--50.

30



effectively to alter or forestall CDC research on the effects of Agent Orange, primarily on the grounds that "enough" dioxin research had already been done.58 These Agent Orange Hearings revealed additional examples of political interference in the CDC~s Agent Orange projects by members of the White House Agent Orange Working Group.59

Dr. Philip 3. Landrigan, the former Director of the Environmental Hazards branch at the CDC, upon discovering the various irregularities in CDC procedures concluded that the errors were so egregious as to warrant an independent investigation not only of the methodology employed by the CDC in its validation study, but also a specific inquiry into what actually transpired at the Center for Environmental Health of the CDC.60

With these suspicions in mind, it should come as no surprise that those familiar with the CDC~s work found little credence in the conclusions reached by the CDC in its recently released Selected Cancers Study. Even though the CDC has previously stated that it believes exposure to Agent Orange is impossible to assess, it found no difficultly in reporting to the press upon the release of the Selected Cancers Study that exposure to Agent

___________________

58 OMB Review of CDC Research: Impact of the Paperwork Reduction Act; A Report Prepared for the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Coumittee on Energy and Commerce, 99th Cong. 2nd Sess. (October 1986).

59 See Agent Orange Nearing at 49-54 (Testimony of Dr. Vernon Houk).

60 Agent Orange Hearing at 229 and 330

31



Orange does not cause cancer. This conclusion was reached despite the fact that the CDC made no effort to determine, through military records or blood/adipose tissue tests, if study subjects were, indeed, exposed to dioxins; nor did the CDC attempt to verify exposure to Agent Orange of those study subjects who actually contracted cancerous diseases. In fact, according to scientists who have made preliminary reviews of the CDCs findings, the statistical power of any one cancer grouping, with the exception of nonHodgkins lymphoma, was so low as to make any conclusion virtually impossible.

IV. RANCH HAND STUDY

Unfortunately, political interference in government sponsored studies associated with Agent orange has been the norm, not the exception. In fact, there appears to have been a systematic effort to suppress critical data or alter results to meet preconceived notions of what alleged scientific studies were meant to find.61 As recently as March 9, 1990 Senator Daschle disclosed compelling evidence of additional political interference in the Air Force Ranch Hand study, a separate government sponsored study meant to examine the correlation between exposure to Agent Orange and harmful health effects among Air Force veterans who participated in Agent Orange spraying

61 See generallv Agent Orange Nearing; Congressional Record, S 2550 (March 9, 1990); Congressional Record, (November 21, 1989) (Statements of Senator Thomas Daschle).

32



missions under Operation Ranch Hand. As Senator Daschle explained:

In January 1984, the scientists in charge of the Ranch Hand Study issued a draft baseline morbidity report that described some very serious health problems in the Ranch Hand veterans and stated that the Ranch Handers, by a ratio of five to one, were generally less well than the veterans in the control group. The opening sentence of the draft reports conclusion was clearly stated: "It is incorrect to interpret this baseline study as negative.

After the Ranch Hand Advisory Committee, which operates under the White House Agent Orange Working Group of the Domestic Policy Council, got its hands on the document, the final report was changed in some very important ways. Most notably, the table and exposition explaining that the Ranch Handers were generally less well than the controls was omitted, and the final conclusion was altered substantially. The statement that the baseline study was not negative was completely omitted and the study was described as "reassuring." 62

By altering the studys conclusion, opponents of Agent Orange compensation were able to point to "irrefutable proof" that Agent Orange is not a health problem: if those veterans most heavily exposed to Agent Orange did not manifest any serious health problems, they argued, then it could safely be deduced that no veteran allegedly exposed to Agent Orange in smaller doses could have health problems. Yet, when Senator Daschle questioned Air Force scientists on why discrepancies existed between an Air Force draft of the Ranch Hand Study and the final report actually released to the press, the answers suggested not merely disagreements in data evaluation, but the perpetration of fraudulent conclusions. In a word, the major premise was badly

_______________________

62 See Congressional Record S 2550 (March 9, 1990)

33



flawed.

For example, in 1987 Ranch Hand scientists confirmed to Senator Daschle that an unpublished birth defects report shows that birth defects among Ranch Hand children are double those of children in the control group and not "minor" as originally reported in l984.63

This increase in birth defects takes on added significance when one considers that the original CDC birth defects study, which found no increase in birth defects, merely examined birth defects as reported on birth certificates, rather than as reported by the childs parent or physician. The CDC never recorded hidden birth defects, such as internal organ malformations and other disabilities that only became apparent as the child developed. Consequently, it is very likely that the CDCs negative findings on birth defects were also vastly understated.64

In addition to elevated birth defects, Ranch Handers also showed a significant increase in skin cancers unrelated to overexposure to the sun as originally suggested in the 1984 report. Air Force scientists also admitted that Air Force and White House Kanagement representatives were involved in

____________________

63 Congressional Record, (November 21, 1989) (Statement of Senator Thomas Daschle).

64 The CDC birth defects study was confined to Vietnam Veterans located in the Atlanta, Georgia region. The study was not an Agent Orange birth defects study since no effort was made to determine whether the veterans had even been exposed to Agent orange. See notes 10 and 18 supra for additional information on birth defects.

34



scientific decisions in spite of the studys protocol which prohibited such involvement.65

On February 23, 1990, the Air Force released a follow-up morbidity report on the Ranch Handers. That report, "1987 Followup Examination Results," described statistically significant increases in health problems among Ranch Handers including: all cancers  skin and systemic combined, both verified and suspected; skin cancers alone; hereditary and degenerative neurological diseases and other problems. The Air Force-concluded, however, that these and other problems cannot necessarily be related to Agent Orange/dioxin exposure, as they do not always show a "dose-response" relationship  particularly since the exposure index used in the data analysis "is not a good measure of actual dioxin exposure." 66

With this conclusion, the Air Force for the first time officially acknowledged that the conclusions reached in its original 1984 Ranch Hand study are not simply moot, but that the Ranch Hand study is not, at this date, an Agent Orange study at all since dioxin exposure could not be determined reliably in the first place. In other words, the Air Force could just as easily have concluded that the health problems associated with the Ranch Handers were not necessarily related to eating beer nuts.

_________________________

65 Congressional Record, S 2551 (March 9, 1990) (Statement of Senator Daschle).

66 Wolfe, St. al., Air Farce Health Study and Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Fol


Keywords: STRIKE FORCE PLATOON-SUDDEN DEATH
THE INFORMATION I HAVE GIVEN PERTAINS TO ALL VIET NAM,KOREAN,PANAMA AND STATESIDE VETS THAT WERE EXPOSED TO AGENT ORANGE HERBICIDED.THE VA HAS KEPT THE TRUTH HIDDEN FOR MANY YEARS.THIS IS 54 PAGES LONG. Editor Note: Agent Orange Key



Entry: 59252
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
CAM LO FLASH FLOOD 1967 MARINES DROWNED NEED HELP WITH NAMES

ANTHONY LEE (TONY) GRIFFIN SR. wrote on October 18, 2006


City and State: MADISON TN

Unit: 3RD BN 4TH MARINES LIMA COMPANY

Service or Relationship: MARINE VETERAN

Comments: The flash flood killed five or six guyes Iknow one was our Lt. but I cant remember his name I keep thinking it was Babers He and doc got caught inside the wire i went to see if they were ok I think the Doc name was doc Bell they pulled me out of a tree the next morning with a am track when i got up to where they had the bodies they were already in body bags .Iwas standing behind a Capt. when he asked if anyone had found Griffin body yet I told him i was standing right behind him.All this took place when we were guarding the bridge. I also remember a body floating down the river when the water went down a black guy who was bloated up to twice his size never new were he came from. So if any one can help me with the names Iwould gladly appreciate it.I was also the 156 lb marine corp boxing champion in 1966.Please give me a message back. Semper Fi.

Keywords: Sgt Metzger squard leader Christy was the fire team leader he was from Oklahoma the m79 man was a short guy named kassitte he was from Fargo North Dakota. We were all with 3/4 lima company 1967


Entry: 59251
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
CAM LO FLASH FLOOD 1967 MARINES DROWNED NEED HELP WITH NAMES

ANTHONY LEE (TONY) GRIFFIN SR. wrote on October 18, 2006


City and State: MADISON TN

Unit: 3RD BN 4TH MARINES LIMA COMPANY

Service or Relationship: MARINE VETERAN

Comments: The flash flood killed five or six guyes Iknow one was our Lt. but I cant remember his name I keep thinking it was Babers He and doc got caught inside the wire i went to see if they were ok I think the Doc name was doc Bell they pulled me out of a tree the next morning with a am track when i got up to where they had the bodies they were already in body bags .Iwas standing behind a Capt. when he asked if anyone had found Griffin body yet I told him i was standing right behind him.All this took place when we were guarding the bridge. I also remember a body floating down the river when the water went down a black guy who was bloated up to twice his size never new were he came from. So if any one can help me with the names Iwould gladly appreciate it.I was also the 156 lb marine corp boxing champion in 1966.Please give me a message back. Semper Fi.

Keywords: Sgt Metzger squard leader Christy was the fire team leader he was from Oklahoma the m79 man was a short guy named kassitte he was from Fargo North Dakota. We were all with 3/4 lima company 1967


Entry: 59192
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
AUG 22 1967 DMZ AMBUSH

DAVE YATES wrote on October 12, 2006


City and State:

Unit: 2ND MED 2ND INF

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: i was medic tdy to dmz for amb support for eng squad clearing minefield when sent to ambush site at gunpost 1 gi kia 1 wia does any body remember incedent?aug 22 1967 thanks

Keywords:


Entry: 59191
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
MINEFIELD ACCIDENT AUG 1967

DAVE YATES wrote on October 12, 2006


City and State:

Unit: TDY DMZ MEDIC FOR ENG SQUAD CLEARING MINEFIELD

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: was curiuos if anyone remembers sargent stepping on mine down by creek in aug of 67 i think he was 21 yrs old and from tennessee hope he is ok i was medic

Keywords:


Entry: 59128
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
CAMP CARROLL 226 SIGNAL CO.

PETE MAHER wrote on October 6, 2006


City and State:

Unit: 226 SIGNAL CO.

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: want to know if camp carroll is closed and where the 226th signal company is now they were attached to the 307th signal battalion at camp carroll the last i heard about them i was with the 226th at camp page in 1964 65 thanks GHOST

Keywords: ghost


Entry: 59125
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
THYROID CANCER

PATRICK O'DONOVAN SR. wrote on October 5, 2006


City and State: HOLLWOOD CA

Unit: B CO/2/10TH CAV

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: I just found out that i have Thyroid cancer, would this fall under AO, i was on the Z in 1969. 60 day rotation.

E-Mail Address: barbell102@yahoo.com


Keywords: Nickname O'D


Entry: 59077
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
KOREA DMZ SERVICE 1968-69 38TH ARTY BDE

MATT LAPIERRE wrote on September 30, 2006


City and State: LOUISVILLE KY

Unit: B CO 2/8 CAV, 1CD

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: My name is Matt LaPierre, I am with the Kentucky Dept. of Veteran;s Affairs. I am trying to assist a veteran (Harold D. Meadows) that was in the 38th Arty Bde in Korea in 1968-69. This veteran was a Sr radio relay operator. He states he was TDY much of his time in Korea. His TDY duties included moving generator equipment origionating from Osan to communication sites in the mountains along the DMZ. I would appreciate any information I can get to assist this veteran with his claim. I need information about unit locations in 1968-69, units the 38th was attached to. Veterans, thank you for your service.

Keywords: Korea service during Vietnam


Entry: 59070
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
2ND MED BN 2INF DIV SEPT 66 JAN 68

DAVE YATES wrote on September 29, 2006


City and State: WALLAND TN

Unit: 2N MED BN CAMP IRWIN

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: was trained as medic was unit police except when tdy to eng squad clearing mine fields on dmz was medic aug 67 when jeep was blown up 1 killed 1 injured by north koreans also 1 gi serious injured while clearing mines for new fence being built.would like to here from any who remembers me. sincerly dave yates

Keywords: yates


Entry: 59014
DMZ 1960 TO 1969
AGENT ORANGE INFORMATION

JOHN RUZALSKI JR. wrote on September 24, 2006


City and State: LORDS VALLEY PA

Unit: HHC3/3N.INF.-7 TH. INF.DIVISION

Service or Relationship: ARMY VETERAN

Comments: PLEASE READ THIS IMPORTANT INFORMATION THAT I HAVE
ACQUIRED.IT PERTAINS TO AGENT ORANGE EXPOSURE AND
DISEASES/ILLNESSES THAT THE VA HAS NOT OPENLY STATED
AS SERVICE CONNECTED.
PLEASE GO TO THIS LINK BELOW AND SEE HOW THE VA TREATS
ALL OF US VETERANS.

http://www.gulfwarvets.com/ao.html


Keywords: HHC 3/32 INF.7 TH.INF.DIVISION
STRIKE FORCE PLATOON (SUDDEN DEATH)
PERSONAL FRIEND-DENNIS PERRY-COMMUNICATIONS
SERVED ON THE DMZ,MDL,GP,ETC:RECEIVED LETTER OF COMMENDATION FOR SERVICE ON THE DMZ.
ENCOUNTED THE ENEMY MANY TIMES/MANY INCIDENTS-MANY OF
WHICH WE ALL KNEW WERE NEVER RECORDED.
CAMP HOVEY.




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Korean DMZ 1960 to 1969